I suspect most of what you have raised goes over the head of the average Simutrans player, even most of the game developers. I touched on logistics very briefly at university, but even I wouldn’t be able to contribute much to the conversation nowadays.
I’d say that Simutrans – Standard would be too simplistic to apply real world theoretical models and expect to notice a significant difference in results.
Also, I think Experimental, while far more ‘real world’ then Standard, would also be lacking in critical elements of real world environments, particularly where some of these models operate.
In saying that however, hub based v’s decentralised is a topic of discussion that pops up from time to time on this forum. Obviously though, it’s with respect to the limits and parameters of the game.
I would be very interested to hear of any experiments you run and the results you obtain.