Started by jamespetts, December 29, 2010, 08:02:08 PM
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Quote from: PrissiPutting high power transmission lines underground is 10-6x times more expensive to built and about 3-5x more expensive to maintain, because you need active oil cooling instead just lines hanging from pylons in fresh air ...
QuoteAutomatic signals are an expensive item, and where mechanically operated signals already exist and in Great Britain they are in use on every line open for traffic their introduction can only be justified when the expense can be recouped by economies effected by signal boxes being closed and signalmen dispensed with. These cases are, however, rarer than is generally imagined. The average cost in England, including fitting the "Track-Circuits" and running line-wires, is about £100 per arm or £200 for a two-arm signal. The maintenance charge is also high, varying, according to the report presented by Mr. Platt to the International Railway Congress in 1905 at Washington, from £12 to over £20 per arm a year. Then each signal has to bear a charge of about £2 for lighting, and there are also fogging expenses. In the case of new lines, as yet unsignalled, it is no doubt much cheaper to provide automatic signals instead of equipping the road with signal-boxes, signalmen and mechanical signals. But new lines are most uncommon in England, and the question must always be considered in relation to existing equipments. These have been paid for, and naturally there must be some good reasons for installing a new system. Where there are signal-boxes at which there is little shunting, and where the chief duty of the signalman is to work the block instruments and signal trains, these men may, if automatic signals be provided, be taken out of the signal-boxes and need only go in when any shunting has to be performed. Such cases will appeal to railway managers, but it takes a good many such economies to pay for automatic signals in Great Britain. For example, assume Automatic Signals to be installed on a British railway over a length of 20 miles of double line with signals one mile apart. This would require forty 2-arm signals or 80 arms in all, which would cost, say, £8,000. The annual charges would be approximately £1,980, made up as follows: -Interest at 4 per cent, on £8,000 ... £320 Sinking fund for renewal in 20 years ... £260 Lighting 80 signals at £2 ... £160 Fogging 40 distant signals at £1 ... £40Maintenance of 80 signals at £15 ... £1,200The average pay of a signalman is 22s. per week - £57 a year to which may be added £3 for his uniform, holiday pay, etc., or £60 in all, so that it would require 33 signalmen to be dispensed with to justify this expense. This estimate and conclusion applies to what may be termed a wholesale adoption of automatic signalling, and even such cases may be modified under certain conditions, as, for instance, on the L. and South Western R. between VVoking and Basingstokc, where the automatic signals and the "Track-Circuit " are part of the equipment of a power signal and interlocking plant. There, the power for working the automatic signals is generated by the same means as the power for operating the points and signals at stations, and this considerably reduces the cost of maintenance, which is the leading item in the expenditure.
QuoteThe first year's work of the "Royal George" consisted of conveying 22,442 tons of goods 20 miles at a cost of only £466, whilst the same amount of work performed by horses cost £998, showing a saving by the use of the "Royal George" of £532 in one year.... This was the first time that a locomotive engine had worked for a whole year at a cheaper rate than horses
Quote In 1939, average coal consumption was 44.21 pounds at 4.44d (1.85p) per mile whereas in 1944 this had risen to 55.18 pounds at 11.88d (4.95p) per mile.
Quoteburns up to 1 ton of coal every 40 miles of running, evaporates about 45 gallons of water per mile